Analysis Of The Construction Of Qawl Muktamad (Final Opinion) In Shafi‘i Madhhab

Analisis Pembentukan Pendapat Muktamad Dalam Mazhab Shafi‘i

  • Syed Shahridzan Syed Mohamed Ben-Agil Calon Ph.D
  • Mohd Hapiz Mahaiyadin Pensyarah Kanan
Keywords: Madhhab, Opinion, Shafi‘iyyah, Differences, Development

Abstract

This paper will analyze the construction of Shafi‘i madhhab (school of thought) mainly on the development of qawl muktamad (final opinion) which eventually become the official fatwa (religious verdict) of the madhhab. The decision-making process to arrive at the selection of qawl muktamad for the Shafi‘i madhhab was a long process encompassing from the time of Salaf al-Salih (the Pious Predecessor) and was continued throughout generations until the 13th century of Hijrah (Islamic Calendar). The process to select the qawl muktamad among the scholars of Shafi‘i mazhab can be divided into four periods, namely, the period of establishment, the period of narration, the period of copy-edit, and the period of stability when the Shafi‘i mazhab becomes matured. The analysis in this research is based upon the authentic books of Shafi‘i madhhab by al-Rafi‘i, al-Nawawi, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Ramli, including the contemporary researchers of the madhhab. Two methods will be used in this research. Firstly, conceptual analysis is to investigate the germination of fatwa in the Shafi‘i madhhab. Secondly, Relational or semantic analysis is to research the tahqiq (verification process) of numerous fatwas during the four periods. These two methods will prove how a fatwa is officially attached to a madhhab, even in the existence of differences of opinion which can be found in major Shafi‘i fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) texts. These seemingly contradictions can lead to confusion among some readers. Hence, the confusion of which fatwa is the qawl muktamad of Shafi‘i madhhab can be put into rest. Indirectly, this writing will develop a proof regarding the glory of Islamic civilization in promoting critical thoughts that are based on dalil aqli (intellect source) and dalil naqli (transmitted textual source), rapidly develop since 1,300 years ago.

Abstrak
Kajian ini akan menganalisis pembinaan mazhab Shafi‘i terutama dalam aspek pembentukan pendapat muktamad yang menjadi fatwa rasmi dalam mazhab tersebut. Pembentukan atau penentuan pendapat muktamad mazhab Shafi‘i telah melalui proses yang lama dalam pelbagai peringkat, bermula dari generasi yang terawal (salaf) dan diwarisi generasi ke generasi sehingga ke kurun tiga belas Hijrah. Kajian ini memfokuskan kepada proses penentuan pendapat yang muktamad dalam kalangan fuqaha Shafi‘iyyah bermula pada zaman pengasasan, periwayatan, penyuntingan dan kestabilan mazhab Shafi‘i. Analisis kajian ini dibuat terhadap kandungan teks daripada sumber rujukan mazhab Shafi‘i yang autentik oleh al-Rafi‘i, al-Nawawi, Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, al-Ramli dan pengkaji mazhab Shafi‘i kontemporari. Dua jenis kaedah analisis kandungan telah digunakan. Pertama, analisis konseptual yang membuat penelitian terhadap percambahan fatwa dalam mazhab Shafi‘i. Kedua, analisis relational atau semantik yang mengkaji pentahkikan pelbagai fatwa pada empat fasa pembinaan mazhab Shafi‘i. Melalui proses tersebut, kajian ini menunjukkan bagaimana suatu fatwa disandarkan kepada mazhab secara rasmi walaupun terdapat perbezaan pandangan dalam kitab-kitab fiqah Shafi‘i muktabar yang mungkin mengelirukan sesetengah pembaca. Secara tidak langsung, kekeliruan pembaca tentang fatwa yang muktamad mazhab Shafi‘i dapat diselesaikan. Di samping itu, kajian ini turut membuktikan bahawa proses pembentukan pendapat tersebut merupakan salah satu bukti kecemerlangan umat Islam dalam membentuk tamadun pemikiran yang kritis berpandukan wacana aqli dan naqli yang berkembang pesat semenjak 1300 tahun yang lalu.

Author Biographies

Syed Shahridzan Syed Mohamed Ben-Agil, Calon Ph.D

Fakulti Bahasa dan Linguistik, Universiti Malaya

Mohd Hapiz Mahaiyadin, Pensyarah Kanan

Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Selangor

Published
2019-11-11
How to Cite
Syed Mohamed Ben-Agil, S. S., & Mahaiyadin, M. H. (2019). Analysis Of The Construction Of Qawl Muktamad (Final Opinion) In Shafi‘i Madhhab. Al-Qanatir: International Journal of Islamic Studies, 16(2), 1-16. Retrieved from http://al-qanatir.com/index.php/qanatir/article/view/244
Section
Articles